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EXPLORE IDM’S CURRENT RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS

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ARXIV

We consider the application of Koopman theory to nonlinear partial differential equations. We demonstrate that the observables chosen for constructing the Koopman operator are critical for enabling an accurate approximation to the nonlinear dynamics. If such observables can be found, then the dynamic mode decomposition algorithm can be enacted to compute a finite-dimensional approximation of the Koopman operator, including its eigenfunctions, eigenvalues and Koopman modes. Judiciously chosen observables lead to physically interpretable spatio-temporal features of the complex system under consideration and provide a connection to manifold learning methods. We demonstrate the impact of observable selection, including kernel methods, and construction of the Koopman operator on two canonical, nonlinear PDEs: Burgers’ equation and the nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation. These examples serve to highlight the most pressing and critical challenge of Koopman theory: a principled way to select appropriate observables.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOLECULAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND MULTI-SCALE COMMUNICATIONS

Inferring the structure and dynamics of network models is critical to understanding the functionality and control of complex systems, such as metabolic and regulatory biological networks. The increasing quality and quantity of experimental data enable statistical approaches based on information theory for model selection and goodness-of-fit metrics. We propose an alternative data-driven method to infer networked nonlinear dynamical systems by using sparsity-promoting optimization to select a subset of nonlinear interactions representing dynamics on a network. In contrast to standard model selection methods-based upon information content for a finite number of heuristic models (order 10 or less), our model selection procedure discovers a parsimonious model from a combinatorially large set of models, without an exhaustive search. Our particular innovation is appropriate for many biological networks, where the governing dynamical systems have rational function nonlinearities with cross terms, thus requiring an implicit formulation and the equations to be identified in the null-space of a library of mixed nonlinearities, including the state and derivative terms. This method, implicit-SINDy, succeeds in inferring three canonical biological models: 1) Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics; 2) the regulatory network for competence in bacteria; and 3) the metabolic network for yeast glycolysis.

PNAS

Extracting governing equations from data is a central challenge in many diverse areas of science and engineering. Data are abundant whereas models often remain elusive, as in climate science, neuroscience, ecology, finance, and epidemiology, to name only a few examples. In this work, we combine sparsity-promoting techniques and machine learning with nonlinear dynamical systems to discover governing equations from noisy measurement data. The only assumption about the structure of the model is that there are only a few important terms that govern the dynamics, so that the equations are sparse in the space of possible functions; this assumption holds for many physical systems in an appropriate basis. In particular, we use sparse regression to determine the fewest terms in the dynamic governing equations required to accurately represent the data. This results in parsimonious models that balance accuracy with model complexity to avoid overfitting. We demonstrate the algorithm on a wide range of problems, from simple canonical systems, including linear and nonlinear oscillators and the chaotic Lorenz system, to the fluid vortex shedding behind an obstacle. The fluid example illustrates the ability of this method to discover the underlying dynamics of a system that took experts in the community nearly 30 years to resolve. We also show that this method generalizes to parameterized systems and systems that are time-varying or have external forcing.

PLOS ONE

In this work, we explore finite-dimensional linear representations of nonlinear dynamical systems by restricting the Koopman operator to an invariant subspace spanned by specially chosen observable functions. The Koopman operator is an infinite-dimensional linear operator that evolves functions of the state of a dynamical system. Dominant terms in the Koopman expansion are typically computed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). DMD uses linear measurements of the state variables, and it has recently been shown that this may be too restrictive for nonlinear systems. Choosing the right nonlinear observable functions to form an invariant subspace where it is possible to obtain linear reduced-order models, especially those that are useful for control, is an open challenge. Here, we investigate the choice of observable functions for Koopman analysis that enable the use of optimal linear control techniques on nonlinear problems. First, to include a cost on the state of the system, as in linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control, it is helpful to include these states in the observable subspace, as in DMD. However, we find that this is only possible when there is a single isolated fixed point, as systems with multiple fixed points or more complicated attractors are not globally topologically conjugate to a finite-dimensional linear system, and cannot be represented by a finite-dimensional linear Koopman subspace that includes the state.

Joshua L. Proctor, S. L. Brunton, B. W. Brunton, J. N. Kutz

SIAM JOURNAL ON APPLIED DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

We develop a new method which extends Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) to incorporate the effect of control to extract low-order models from high-dimensional, complex systems. DMD finds spatial-temporal coherent modes, connects local-linear analysis to nonlinear operator theory, and provides an equation-free architecture which is compatible with compressive sensing. In actuated systems, DMD is incapable of producing an input-output model; moreover, the dynamics and the modes will be corrupted by external forcing. Our new method, Dynamic Mode Decomposition with control (DMDc), capitalizes on all of the advantages of DMD and provides the additional innovation of being able to disambiguate between the underlying dynamics and the effects of actuation, resulting in accurate input-output models. The method is data-driven in that it does not require knowledge of the underlying governing equations, only snapshots of state and actuation data from historical, experimental, or black-box simulations. We demonstrate the method on high dimensional dynamical systems, including a model with relevance to the analysis of infectious disease data with mass vaccination (actuation).

ARXIV.ORG, CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

In this work, we explore finite-dimensional linear representations of nonlinear dynamical systems by restricting the Koopman operator to a subspace spanned by specially chosen observable functions. The Koopman operator is an infinite-dimensional linear operator that evolves observable functions on the state-space of a dynamical system. Dominant terms in the Koopman expansion are typically computed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). DMD uses linear observations of the state variables, and it has recently been shown that this may be too restrictive for nonlinear systems. It remains an open challenge how to choose the right nonlinear observable functions to form a subspace where it is possible to obtain efficient linear reduced-order models.

Here, we investigate the choice of observable functions for Koopman analysis. First, we note that in order to obtain a linear Koopman system that advances the original states, it is helpful to include these states in the observable subspace, as in DMD. We then categorize dynamical systems by whether or not there exists a Koopman-invariant observable subspace that includes the state variables as observables. In particular, we note that this is only possible when there is a single isolated fixed point, as systems with multiple fixed points or more complicated attractors are not topologically conjugate to a finite-dimensional linear system; this is illustrated using the logistic map. Second, we present a data-driven strategy to identify the relevant observable functions for Koopman analysis. We leverage a new algorithm that determines relevant terms in a dynamical system by 1 regularized regression of the data in a nonlinear function space; we also show how this algorithm is related to DMD. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of nonlinear observable subspaces in the design of Koopman operator optimal control laws for fully nonlinear systems using techniques from linear optimal control.

ARXIV.ORG, CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

The ability to discover physical laws and governing equations from data is one of humankind’s greatest intellectual achievements. A quantitative understanding of dynamic constraints and balances in nature has facilitated rapid development of knowledge and enabled advanced technological achievements, including aircraft, combustion engines, satellites, and electrical power. In this work, we combine sparsity-promoting techniques and machine learning with nonlinear dynamical systems to discover governing physical equations from measurement data. The only assumption about the structure of the model is that there are only a few important terms that govern the dynamics, so that the equations are sparse in the space of possible functions; this assumption holds for many physical systems. In particular, we use sparse regression to determine the fewest terms in the dynamic governing equations required to accurately represent the data. The resulting models are parsimonious, balancing model complexity with descriptive ability while avoiding overfitting. We demonstrate the algorithm on a wide range of problems, from simple canonical systems, including linear and nonlinear oscillators and the chaotic Lorenz system, to the fluid vortex shedding behind an obstacle. The fluid example illustrates the ability of this method to discover the underlying dynamics of a system that took experts in the community nearly 30 years to resolve. We also show that this method generalizes to parameterized, time-varying, or externally forced systems.

INTERNATIONAL HEALTH

Background

The development and application of quantitative methods to understand disease dynamics and plan interventions is becoming increasingly important in the push toward eradication of human infectious diseases, exemplified by the ongoing effort to stop the spread of poliomyelitis.

Methods

Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is a recently developed method focused on discovering coherent spatial-temporal modes in high-dimensional data collected from complex systems with time dynamics. The algorithm has a number of advantages including a rigorous connection to the analysis of nonlinear systems, an equation-free architecture, and the ability to efficiently handle high-dimensional data.

Results

We demonstrate the method on three different infectious disease sets including Google Flu Trends data, pre-vaccination measles in the UK, and paralytic poliomyelitis wild type-1 cases in Nigeria. For each case, we describe the utility of the method for surveillance and resource allocation.

Conclusions

We demonstrate how DMD can aid in the analysis of spatial-temporal disease data. DMD is poised to be an effective and efficient computational analysis tool for the study of infectious disease.

Matthew O. Williams, Joshua Proctor, J. Nathan Kutz

PHYSICA D

Although disease transmission in the near eradication regime is inherently stochastic, deterministic quantities such as the probability of eradication are of interest to policy makers and researchers. Rather than running large ensembles of discrete stochastic simulations over long intervals in time to compute these deterministic quantities, we create a data-driven and deterministic “coarse” model for them using the Equation Free (EF) framework. In lieu of deriving an explicit coarse model, the EF framework approximates any needed information, such as coarse time derivatives, by running short computational experiments. However, the choice of the coarse variables (i.e., the state of the coarse system) is critical if the resulting model is to be accurate. In this manuscript, we propose a set of coarse variables that result in an accurate model in the endemic and near eradication regimes, and demonstrate this on a compartmental model representing the spread of Poliomyelitis. When combined with adaptive time-stepping coarse projective integrators, this approach can yield over a factor of two speedup compared to direct simulation, and due to its lower dimensionality, could be beneficial when conducting systems level tasks such as designing eradication or monitoring campaigs. 

Joshua L. Proctor, S. L. Brunton, B. W. Brunton, J. N. Kutz

ARXIV.ORG, CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

We develop a new method which extends Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) to incorporate the effect of control to extract low-order models from high-dimensional, complex systems. DMD finds spatial-temporal coherent modes, connects local-linear analysis to nonlinear operator theory, and provides an equation-free architecture which is compatible with compressive sensing. In actuated systems, DMD is incapable of producing an input-output model; moreover, the dynamics and the modes will be corrupted by external forcing. Our new method, Dynamic Mode Decomposition with control (DMDc), capitalizes on all of the advantages of DMD and provides the additional innovation of being able to disambiguate between the underlying dynamics and the effects of actuation, resulting in accurate input-output models. The method is data-driven in that it does not require knowledge of the underlying governing equations, only snapshots of state and actuation data from historical, experimental, or black-box simulations. We demonstrate the method on high dimensional dynamical systems, including a model with relevance to the analysis of infectious disease data with mass vaccination (actuation).