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EXPLORE IDM’S CURRENT RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS

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Steven L. Brunton, Bingni W. Brunton, Joshua L. Proctor, Eurika Kaiser & J. Nathan Kutz

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS

Understanding the interplay of order and disorder in chaos is a central challenge in modern quantitative science. Approximate linear representations of nonlinear dynamics have long been sought, driving considerable interest in Koopman theory. We present a universal, data-driven decomposition of chaos as an intermittently forced linear system. This work combines delay embedding and Koopman theory to decompose chaotic dynamics into a linear model in the leading delay coordinates with forcing by low-energy delay coordinates; this is called the Hankel alternative view of Koopman (HAVOK) analysis. This analysis is applied to the Lorenz system and real-world examples including Earth’s magnetic field reversal and measles outbreaks. In each case, forcing statistics are non-Gaussian, with long tails corresponding to rare intermittent forcing that precedes switching and bursting phenomena. The forcing activity demarcates coherent phase space regions where the dynamics are approximately linear from those that are strongly nonlinear.

Oliver J Brady, Hannah C Slater, Peter Pemberton-Ross, Edward Wenger, Richard J Maude, Azra C Ghani, Melissa A Penny, Jaline Gerardin, Lisa J White, Nakul Chitnis, Ricardo Aguas, Simon I Hay, David L Smith, Erin M Stuckey, Emelda A Okiro, Thomas A Smith, Lucy C Okell

THE LANCET

Background

Mass drug administration for elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is recommended by WHO in some settings. We used consensus modelling to understand how to optimise the effects of mass drug administration in areas with low malaria transmission.

Methods

We collaborated with researchers doing field trials to establish a standard intervention scenario and standard transmission setting, and we input these parameters into four previously published models. We then varied the number of rounds of mass drug administration, coverage, duration, timing, importation of infection, and pre-administration transmission levels. The outcome of interest was the percentage reduction in annual mean prevalence of P falciparum parasite rate as measured by PCR in the third year after the final round of mass drug administration.

Findings

The models predicted differing magnitude of the effects of mass drug administration, but consensus answers were reached for several factors. Mass drug administration was predicted to reduce transmission over a longer timescale than accounted for by the prophylactic effect alone. Percentage reduction in transmission was predicted to be higher and last longer at lower baseline transmission levels. Reduction in transmission resulting from mass drug administration was predicted to be temporary, and in the absence of scale-up of other interventions, such as vector control, transmission would return to pre-administration levels. The proportion of the population treated in a year was a key determinant of simulated effectiveness, irrespective of whether people are treated through high coverage in a single round or new individuals are reached by implementation of several rounds. Mass drug administration was predicted to be more effective if continued over 2 years rather than 1 year, and if done at the time of year when transmission is lowest.

Interpretation

Mass drug administration has the potential to reduce transmission for a limited time, but is not an effective replacement for existing vector control. Unless elimination is achieved, mass drug administration has to be repeated regularly for sustained effect.

Funding

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

FRACTIONAL DIFFUSION EMULATES A HUMAN MOBILITY NETWORK DURING A SIMULATED DISEA…

Mobility networks facilitate the growth of populations, the success of invasive species, and the spread of communicable diseases among social animals, including humans.Disease control and elimination efforts, especially during an outbreak, can be optimized by numerical modeling of disease dynamics on transport networks. This is especially true when incidence data from an emerging epidemic is sparse and unreliable. However, mobility networks can be complex, challenging to characterize, and expensive to simulate with agent-based models. We therefore studied a parsimonious model for spatiotemporal disease dynamics based on a fractional diffusion equation. We implemented new stochastic simulations of a prototypical influenza-like infection spreading through the United States’ highly-connected air travel network. We found that the national-averaged infected fraction during an outbreak is accurately reproduced by a space-fractional diffusion equation consistent with the connectivity of airports. Fractional diffusion therefore seems to be a better model of network outbreak dynamics than a diffusive model. Our fractional reaction-diffusion method and the result could be extended to other mobility networks in a variety of applications for population dynamics.

Samuel H. Rudy, Steven L. Brunton, Joshua L. Proctor, and J. Nathan Kutz

SCIENCE ADVANCES

We propose a sparse regression method capable of discovering the governing partial differential equation(s) of a given system by time series measurements in the spatial domain. The regression framework relies on sparsity-promoting techniques to select the nonlinear and partial derivative terms of the governing equations that most accurately represent the data, bypassing a combinatorially large search through all possible candidate models. The method balances model complexity and regression accuracy by selecting a parsimonious model via Pareto analysis. Time series measurements can be made in an Eulerian framework, where the sensors are fixed spatially, or in a Lagrangian framework, where the sensors move with the dynamics. The method is computationally efficient, robust, and demonstrated to work on a variety of canonical problems spanning a number of scientific domains including Navier-Stokes, the quantum harmonic oscillator, and the diffusion equation. Moreover, the method is capable of disambiguating between potentially nonunique dynamical terms by using multiple time series taken with different initial data. Thus, for a traveling wave, the method can distinguish between a linear wave equation and the Korteweg–de Vries equation, for instance. The method provides a promising new technique for discovering governing equations and physical laws in parameterized spatiotemporal systems, where first-principles derivations are intractable.

Samuel H. Rudy, Steven L. Brunton, Joshua L. Proctor and J. Nathan Kutz

SCIENCE ADVANCES

We propose a sparse regression method capable of discovering the governing partial differential equation(s) of a given system by time series measurements in the spatial domain. The regression framework relies on sparsity-promoting techniques to select the nonlinear and partial derivative terms of the governing equations that most accurately represent the data, bypassing a combinatorially large search through all possible candidate models. The method balances model complexity and regression accuracy by selecting a parsimonious model via Pareto analysis. Time series measurements can be made in an Eulerian framework, where the sensors are fixed spatially, or in a Lagrangian framework, where the sensors move with the dynamics. The method is computationally efficient, robust, and demonstrated to work on a variety of canonical problems spanning a number of scientific domains including Navier-Stokes, the quantum harmonic oscillator, and the diffusion equation. Moreover, the method is capable of disambiguating between potentially nonunique dynamical terms by using multiple time series taken with different initial data. Thus, for a traveling wave, the method can distinguish between a linear wave equation and the Korteweg–de Vries equation, for instance. The method provides a promising new technique for discovering governing equations and physical laws in parameterized spatiotemporal systems, where first-principles derivations are intractable.

2017 AMERICAN CONTROL CONFERENCE (ACC)

Utilizing the concept of observability, in conjunction with tools from graph theory and optimization, this paper develops an algorithm for network synthesis with privacy guarantees. In particular, we propose an algorithm for the selection of optimal weights for the communication graph in order to maximize the privacy of nodes in the network, from a control theoretic perspective. In this direction, we propose an observability-based design of the communication topology that improves the privacy of the network in presence of an intruder. The resulting adaptive network responds to the intrusion by changing the topology of the network-in an online manner- in order to reduce the information exposed to the intruder.

INFECTIOUS DISEASE MODELING

The emergence of Zika and Ebola demonstrates the importance of understanding the role of sexual transmission in the spread of diseases with a primarily non-sexual transmission route. In this paper, we develop low-dimensional models for how an SIR disease will spread if it transmits through a sexual contact network and some other transmission mechanism, such as direct contact or vectors. We show that the models derived accurately predict the dynamics of simulations in the large population limit, and investigate ℛ0 and final size relations.

SIAM NEWS

Ordinary and partial differential equations are widely used throughout the engineering, physical, and biological sciences to describe the physical laws underlying a given system of interest. We implicitly assume that the governing equations are known and justified by first principles, such as conservation of mass or momentum and/or empirical observations. From the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics to Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetic propagation, knowledge of the governing laws has allowed transformative technology (e.g., smart phones, internet, lasers, and satellites) to impact society. In modern applications such as neuroscience, epidemiology, and climate science, the governing equations are only partially known and exhibit strongly nonlinear multiscale dynamics that are difficult to model. Scientific computing methods provide an enabling framework for characterizing such systems, and the SIAM community has historically made some of the most important contributions to simulation-based sciences, including extensive developments in finite-difference, finite-element, spectral, and reduced-order modeling methods.

PLOS

Using a computational model of the Caenorhabditis elegans connectome dynamics, we show that proprioceptive feedback is necessary for sustained dynamic responses to external input. This is consistent with the lack of biophysical evidence for a central pattern generator, and recent experimental evidence that proprioception drives locomotion. The low-dimensional functional response of the Caenorhabditis elegans network of neurons to proprioception-like feedback is optimized by input of specific spatial wavelengths which correspond to the spatial scale of real body shape dynamics. Furthermore, we find that the motor subcircuit of the network is responsible for regulating this response, in agreement with experimental expectations. To explore how the connectomic dynamics produces the observed two-mode, oscillatory limit cycle behavior from a static fixed point, we probe the fixed point’s low-dimensional structure using Dynamic Mode Decomposition. This reveals that the nonlinear network dynamics encode six clusters of dynamic modes, with timescales spanning three orders of magnitude. Two of these six dynamic mode clusters correspond to previously-discovered behavioral modes related to locomotion. These dynamic modes and their timescales are encoded by the network’s degree distribution and specific connectivity. This suggests that behavioral dynamics are partially encoded within the connectome itself, the connectivity of which facilitates proprioceptive control.

 

ARXIV.ORG

We develop an algorithm for model selection which allows for the consideration of a combinatorially large number of candidate models governing a dynamical system. The innovation circumvents a disadvantage of standard model selection which typically limits the number candidate models considered due to the intractability of computing information criteria. Using a recently developed sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics algorithm, the sub-selection of candidate models near the Pareto frontier allows for a tractable computation of AIC (Akaike information criteria) or BIC(Bayes information criteria) scores for the remaining candidate models. The information criteria hierarchically ranks the most informative models, enabling the automatic and principled selection of the model with the strongest support in relation to the time series data. Specifically, we show that AIC scores place each candidate model in the strong support, weak support or no support category. The method correctly identifies several canonical dynamical systems, including an SEIR (susceptibleexposed-infectious-recovered) disease model and the Lorenz equations, giving the correct dynamical system as the only candidate model with strong support